African American Muslim History
- “African American Islam Reformed: “Black Muslims” and the Universal Ummah,” from On Common Ground: World Religions in America, published by Columbia University Press, via The Pluralism Project at Harvard University.
- “From African Prince to Mississippi Slave: Abdul Rahman Ibrahima,” Documenting the American South, University of North Carolina Library.
- “Islam and African Americans,” Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience, Second Edition, via The Oxford African American Studies Center.
- “Malcolm X: A Search for Truth,” The Schomberg Center for Research in Black Culture, New York Public Library.
- Malcolm X: Make it Plain, American Experience, PBS.
- “The Moorish Science Temple & Ahmadiyya Missionaries,” Teaching American History in North Carolina (2011).
- The Muhammad Ali Center: Educational Resources
- “Muslim Slaves, Immigration, & American Islamicism,” Teaching American History in North Carolina (2011).
African American Muslims & The Arts
- “A Diplomatic Mission Bearing Islamic Hip-Hop,” Mark Oppenheimer, The New York Times, July 22, 2011.
- “Islam in the Mix, Lessons of the Five Percent,” Ted Swedenberg, Department of Anthropology, University of Arkansas (1997).
- “Music: Hip-Hop, Spoken Word, and Rap: United States of America,” Sylvia Chan Malik, in The Encyclopedia of Women and Islamic Cultures.
- “Muslim Voices in America: The Making of a Modern Music Scene,” Hussein Rashid, Hofstra University (via Muslim Voices Festival).
- “Sufis on Parade: The Performance of Black, African, and Muslim Identities,” Zain Abdullah, Journal of the American Academy of Religion, Vol. 77, No. 2 (June 2009).
- “‘Verily, There Is Only One Hip-Hop Umma”: Islam, Cultural Protest and Urban Marginality,” Hisham Aidi, Journalism of the Research Group on Socialism and Democracy, Vol. 18, No. 2,
Contemporary African American Islam